Womens March 1911

A 1911 California Women’s Suffrage march, the year women won the right to vote. Photo from the California Museum.

By Don Chaddock, Inside CDCR editor
Office of Public and Employee Communications

In 1885, the state created the prison matron position, allowing women to work in prisons overseeing female inmates. The first statewide push for Women’s Suffrage was in 1896, but it effort failed. In 1911, after more than a decade of campaigning and marches, women won the right to vote. Eventually, the first female warden was put in charge of the California Institution for Women. By the early 1970s, women were hired as correctional officers in men’s prisons. That same decade saw women entering into other prison jobs typically held by men. Women fought long and hard to earn the right to work alongside men in the state prison system. Inside CDCR looks at part of their struggle.

Suffrage movement turns to prisons

Clara Shortridge Foltz, the first woman to be admitted to the California bar, was appointed by Governor Gillette to the State Board of Charities and Corrections, an oversight board tasked with keeping an eye on hospitals, jails, asylums and prisons. (Read more about Foltz.)

Clara Shortridge Foltz not only crafted the parole law, but nearly 20 years later in 1910, was appointed to the board tasked with overseeing state prisons, hospitals and the parole system.

“The appointment followed close on a petition from the California club to the governor to give the vacancy on the board to a woman,” reported the Los Angeles Herald, Feb. 11, 1910. “Mrs. Foltz is one of the best known lawyers in the state. Besides being the author of the prison parole system in California, which she was instrumental in putting into effect after an exhaustive study of prison conditions all over the country, she caused to be abolished the prisoners’ cage in the police courts in San Francisco some years ago, and at present is actively engaged in prison reform.”

“It was very good of the governor,” Foltz told the newspaper, “and I feel highly honored, not because it is myself alone, but because the appointment has been given to a woman. Governor Gillett recently has been the subject of criticism throughout the state because of an alleged statement to the effect that he did not believe in women holding public office. I believe that I can accomplish much good on this board.”

The more specific Board of Prison Directors did not have a woman appointed for many years. They acted as direct oversight of the warden and as a sort of early Board of Parole Hearings.

Beginning in 1907, a woman made headlines when she was hired to be the secretary of the board.

“Woman for Secretary,” reads the headline, Sacramento Union, Sept. 21, 1907. “Word has been received at the capitol of the selection of Miss E. Herriott of Alameda as secretary of the state board of prison directors, to succeed P.H. McGrath of this city, who resigned. This is the first time that a woman has ever been elected to a position of this kind, and Miss Harriott’s appointment comes as a surprise, as there were others more prominently spoke of for the place.”

She retired three years later.

“Miss Elizabeth Herriott, for the last three years secretary of the state board of prison directors, has tendered her resignation to take effect Feb. 1. Miss Herriott will leave San Francisco Feb. 5 on the steamship Cleveland, when that vessel sails for a trip around the world,” reported the San Francisco Call, Jan. 22, 1910. “It is the intention of Miss Herriott to leave the (steamship) in Europe, where she will spend several years studying history and language.”

In 1914, women attorneys rallied to pressure the governor to appoint a woman to serve on the Board of Prison Directors.

“Los Angeles women attorneys, who requested Governor Johnson to appoint a women on the state board of prison directors, today received the endorsement and backing of several superior judges of this city,” reported the Los Angeles Herald, Jan. 23, 1914.

“Various women’s clubs throughout the state are busy circulating petitions and otherwise preparing to bring pressure to bear on Governor Hiram Johnson in the hope that he will appoint a woman on the state board of prison directors,” reported the Sacramento Union six months later, June 15, 1914. Their attempts were unsuccessful.

In 1922, the fight for a woman on the prison board was still underway.

“Governor-elect Friend W. Richardson will be asked to appoint a woman as a member of the state board of prison directors – a board that is and always has been composed exclusively of men and which has supervision over the cases of 4,000 male convicts as compared to between 50 and 60 women,” reported the Chico Record, Nov. 23, 1922.

In 1933, California Institution for Women’s (CIW) opening sparked the notion of women taking on more correctional duties statewide.

“Mention was made … of the possible appointment of a woman as a member of the State Board of Prison Directors, specific reference being made to the naming of (Rose B.) Wallace of Alhambra, at present head of the Board of Trustees of (CIW), which directed the establishment of the new woman’s prison near Tehachapi,” according to an editorial in the Sausalito News, Sept. 39, 1933. “The suggestion strikes us as a splendid one. … We have been aware of the good work (Wallace) has done in getting the Legislature to establish this reformatory for women offenders, and above all are familiar with her deep interest in this kind of work. … It might not have been considered as a woman’s place some years back, but now we have women on juries who weigh evidence by which both men and women are sent to prison. A woman could certainly serve her state in assisting to administer its penal institutions.”

In 1941, state senators sponsored a penal reform bill.

“Designed to promote improved administration, a bill creating the State Department of Corrections has been adopted by the Senate and is now being considered by the Assembly…. It is provided that the next person appointed to the board shall be a woman and that there shall here after be a woman member,” reported the Sausalito News, May 15, 1941.

Female hired to run prison factory

Pia 1974 Pat Schecter

Pat Schecter, 1974.

Factories saw women workers during World War I and World War II, but they didn’t break into law enforcement until much later. After the first women began working in male prisons, they began to take on other jobs in traditionally male-dominated fields – such as running a factory at San Quentin. In 1974, Pat Schecter was tapped to be the first woman to do just that.

“Santa Monica College student Mrs. Pat Schecter will become the first woman in the United States to be a textile factory supervisor in the state correctional industries (today known as California Prison Industry Authority). According to Mrs. Schecter, she will be working directly with the inmates of San Quentin State Prison,” reported the Santa Monica College Corsair, Oct. 9, 1974. “She will supervise the instruction and making of garments such as the orange vests worn by street construction workers. Prisoner-made products are not sold to the public. Other duties for Mrs. Schecter will include managing personnel and public relations. It all came about because Mrs. Schecter answered an ad in the California Apparel News requesting an experienced person in the clothing industry who would be interested in relocating. After that there was a series of tests and an interview. The nervously awaited news came at 7:30 a.m. by telephone from Del Brown, manager of San Quentin State Prison Correctional Industries.”

She started her job Oct. 15.

“The civilian quarters of the institution will be home for Mrs. Schecter while she finds a place to live. Only 24-hour employees are allowed to stay there permanently. Mrs. Schecter, now 54 years old, was born in London, England. There she received her training in technical college and from practical work. She migrated to Canada in 1956 and worked as a consultant in the fashion industry for seven years. She came to Los Angeles in 1964 and continued her work in the fashion industry. She enrolled at (Santa Monica College) last semester to further her apparel education because of the modern equipment available. She found what she was looking for and says of her instructor, Phillis Madison, ‘She makes the sewing machine talk.’ Mrs. Schecter is a bit modest about the whole thing and hopes it will pave the way for women into such jobs,” the paper reported.


The+awakening Loc 1911

Before the 19th Amendment was ratified in 1920, individual states were left to decide the issue of Women’s Suffrage. By 1911, most of the western states recognized a woman’s right to vote. The rest of the country had yet to pass such measures. Library of Congress.